I found this particular chapter from Nurture Shock particularly enlightening. For so long, we’ve all naturally assumed that children are “colour blind” when it comes to racial differences. We assume that if we bring up the topic of race, we might be inadvertently drawing their attention to the differences between people of different ethnic backgrounds. We also incorrectly assume that by saying nothing, we will avoid corrupting a child’s pure view of the world that everyone is the same.
It all became clear when I read Chapter 3 of Nurture Shock. It appears that children have an inherent tendency to discriminate against other individuals who are different from them. It doesn’t necessarily have to be skin colour differences. It can be any difference they pick up which can be a source for discrimination. It has to do with the search of identity and the assumption that people who are similar on the exterior are also more likely to be similar on the inside. That is, they are more likely to enjoy the same things.
One study that made this evident was when they took a class and divided them into two groups. One group wore red shirts and the other wore blue shirts. No mention was ever made to the colour of the shirts they wore. There were no competitions, nor segregation and during play time, the red and blue shirts were free to intermingle as they desired.
After a while, the examiner questioned both red and blue shirts. When the red shirts were asked who was more likely to be nice, they answered the red shirts. When the red shirts were asked who was more likely to be mean, they answered the blue shirts. Likewise, when the blue shirts were asked who was more likely to win a competition, they answered the blue shirts. Despite there being no references made to the difference in shirt colour, the children instinctively picked up on it and made their own assumptions based on that external difference.
Similarly, the same thing happens with race. Because we are so conscious about being politically correct, we have taken it to the extremes and avoided talking about race to our children. Yet, studies are showing that this is the wrong tack to take with a child who doesn’t understand why there are differences. If left to their own devices, they will form their own opinions about the differences unless we educate them.
Therefore, if we want to raise children who are better able to accept racial differences, we need to talk about those differences. Just as we discuss the differences between boys and girls, we need to be able to discuss the differences in skin colour and the fact that we’re all the same underneath.
It isn’t enough to simply make vague statements that everyone is the same. A child simply cannot understand such broad, sweeping statements. The discussion needs to be very specific – to the point that it sometimes makes us feel uncomfortable talking about it. Yet, if we want our children to accept other people from other races, we need to talk about it and explore our children’s feelings about it.
Another thing that Bronson and Merryman discovered was that children were beginning to form their own opinions about racial differences from as early as 3 years old. At this age, most parents aren’t even aware of the need to discuss race. By the time parents bring up the topic, a child has already formed so many internal ideas about race that it is much harder to correct prejudices.